English is a language which because of its multifarious facets and universal features has these days, become most useful to the welfare of mankind. But unfortunately, the English language instruction in Kerala today, has failed to equip learners with the communicative skills that are necessary for social interaction and individual career achievements. As we all know, with the development of information technology, all application of the instruction starts to have a tendency towards technology based rather that of teacher-centred instruction. It is important to mention that computers are the main instructional support to the learning and teaching process, it can be seen a tendency of application of computer based instruction in the language classrooms too. Therefore, this study handled the attitude of teachers towards the use of CALL in teaching of English especially at secondary school level.
This study examined that how teachers perceive the incorporation and use of computer technology resources in language teaching especially in EFL context. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to find out the attitude of secondary school English teachers towards the use of CALL in teaching of English and 2) to find whether there is any significant difference in the attitude of teachers towards the use of CALL in teaching of English for the total sample and for the sub-sample based (medium and type of management). The study was a normative survey in its nature and the researcher selected a sample of 75 secondary school English teachers in Kollam district that were chosen randomly. The data were collected with the help of an attitude scale which was constructed and standardised by the investigator. The results revealed that the attitude of teachers towards CALL is positive. Skills have no effects over these attitudes.
Keywords: CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning), Attitude, English language teaching.
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON THE ATTITUDE OF ENGLISH TEACHERS TOWARDS THE USE OF COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL) IN TEACHING OF ENGLISH AT SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL
Author: Fathimath Safara M.
Research Scholar,Gov.College of Teacher Education, Thycaud, Thiruvananthapuram
[shc_shortcode class=”shc_mybox”]Published in: Contemporary Researches in Education, Edited by Dr.Asha J.V. and Naseerali M.K.[/shc_shortcode]
Recent years it can be seen that a bloom of interest in using computers for language teaching and learning. The role of computers in the language instruction has now become an important issue confronting large numbers of language teachers throughout the world. The concept of learner centred design is an important one in education it means focussing on the learner and his needs and motivations. CALL is a form of computer- based learning which carries two important features: bidirectional learning and individualised learning and the materials are mainly used in teaching to facilitate the language learning process. It is a student- centred learning material, which promotes self-paced learning. CALL can be used to reinforce what has been learned in the classrooms. It also is used as remedial to help learners with limited language proficiency.
CALL can be defined as “the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning” (Graham Davies, 1982). CALL’s origins and development trace back to the 1960’s (Delcloque 2000). Since the early days CALL has developed into a symbiotic relationship between the development of technology and pedagogy.
Warschauer (2000) divided the development of CALL into three phases:
Structural or behaviouristic CALL was conceived in 1950s and implemented in the 1960s and 1970s. Informed by the behaviourist learning model, this is featured repetitive language drills, referred to as drill-and practice programs and language testing instruments, strictly followed by the computer – as – tutor model.
Communicative CALL emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s. It stressed that computer based activities should focus more on using forms than on the forms themselves, teach grammar implicitly rather than explicitly, allow and encourage students to generate original utterances rather than just manipulate language, and use the target language predominantly or even exclusively (Jones and Fortescue, 1987)
Integrative CALL gives important both to integrate various skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing) and also integrated technology more fully into the language learning process. Here the students learn to use a variety of technological tools as an ongoing process of language learning and use, rather than visiting the computer lab on a once a week basis for isolated exercises.
Thus the role of CALL has changed greatly. Technological and pedagogical developments now allow us to better integrate computer technology into the language learning process. Multimedia programs incorporating speech recognition software can immerse students into rich environments for language practice. Varied software and large language corpora provide students’ means to investigate language use in authentic context. And the internet allows a great number of opportunities to communicate in the target language and multimedia information.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The present study aims at finding out the attitude of English teachers towards the use of CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) strategy in teaching of English especially at secondary school level. Here the investigator attempts to examine that how teachers perceive the incorporation and use of computer technology resources in language teaching especially in EFL context.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Attitude: Attitude refers to “affective, cognitive, and behavioural components that correspond, respectively to one’s evaluations of knowledge of, and predisposition, to act toward the object of the attitude”. (Wagner, 1969). In this study attitude of secondary school teachers refers to the sum total of teacher’s inclinations and feelings, prejudice or bias, pre-concerned notions and convictions about CALL especially in teaching of English at secondary school level.
CALL: CALL is an acronym of Computer Assisted Language Learning. CALL is a growing field in ILT (information and learning Technology) with wide selections of applications, reference works, and study and research tools, available as well as plenty of applications targeted at specific English Language exams.
METHODOLOGY IN BRIEF
The present study is a Normative Survey study that is intended to collect data regarding the attitude of high school English teachers towards CALL strategy in teaching English. The population of the study was the secondary school English teachers of Kollam district.
Schools were selected by using lottery method for the study. 8 Government and 8 Private schools were selected. Total institutions selected by stratified random sampling method in which Total 75 teachers from different region of Kollam district were participated in this survey.
A self constructed attitude scale which was standardised by the researcher was used for the study. There are 24 items in which 12 are positive and 12 are negative. It was a five point attitude scale.
In this study, the researcher used descriptive statistical measures to compare the attitude of secondary school English teachers towards the use of CALL in teaching of English. A t-test procedure was used to test the differences among the attitude of secondary school English teachers based on medium and type of management.
ANALYSIS OF THE STUDY
Attitude of Govt. and Private Secondary School English Teachers towards the Use of CALL in Teaching of English
Table 1. Mean and SD of secondary school English teachers’ Attitude
The above table indicates that the attitude of secondary school English teachers towards the use of CALL in teaching of English is high. The mean value of secondary school English teachers’ attitude (71.46%) indicates that there is a high attitude towards the use of CALL in teaching of English.
Thus the hypothesis, Secondary school English teachers have a positive attitude towards the use of CALL in teaching of English (H1), is accepted.
Comparison of Attitude of Govt. and Private Secondary School English Teachers towards the Use of CALL in Teaching of English
Table 2. Computed ‘t’ value of Govt. and private secondary school English teachers
|Type of Management||N||Mean||S.D||t-value|
In table.1 the mean, standard deviation and t-value is presented. The mean score for attitude of English teachers in Govt. school towards CALL in teaching of English is 41.36 with a standard deviation 5.58, and mean score of attitude of Private teachers is 30.50 with a standard deviation 6.61 for the Attitude Scale. Thus it can be said that the attitude of Govt. school English teachers towards the use of CALL in teaching of English is higher than that of Private school teachers.
The t-value at 0.01 level of significance is 2.58 from table. Here the t-value for the significance of attitude of English teachers in Govt and Private school towards CALL in teaching of English is 8.30, which is greater than the table value. Therefore, the obtained ‘t’ value is significant at 0.01 level. Hence the null hypothesis is rejected. It can be said that there is significant difference in the attitude of secondary school English teachers towards the use of CALL in teaching of English of Govt. and Private schools.
The major finding of the study reveals the existence of a high positive attitude among the English teachers towards the use of CALL in teaching of English in secondary school level. Among these the attitude of Govt. School teachers are more stable and reliable compare to teachers of other institutions.
It can be seen that computer technology has taken its rightful place as an important element of language learning and teaching today. Future developments in networked communication, multimedia and artificial intelligence will likely converge, creating a potentially more central role for the computer as a tool for authentic language exploration and use in the second language classroom (Warschauer, 2000). CALL brings with it several potential benefits as a teaching or learning medium which include self-paced learning and also self-directed learning.
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Davies, G., (1982). Computers, Language and Language Learning.CILT London.
Delcloque, P. (2000).History of CALL.Available from www.historyofcall.org/
Jones,C.,& Fortescue,S. (1987). Using Computers in the Language classroom.London:Longman
Kern, R. & Warschauer, M. (2000). Theory and practice of network-based language teaching: concepts and practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.