Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation- Brief Note

 

At the centre of the transformation that school education is undergoing presently is the new perspective to assessment and its relationship to the teaching-learning process. It is widely agreed that assessment influences what is taught and how teaching and learning are delivered. There is also a widespread belief among educational researchers and practitioners that assessment can and often does constrain rather than enhance learning outcomes. If we restrict our choices of teaching and learning activities to exercises that simply rehearse for examinations, then we run the risk of failing our learners during the process of teaching and learning. Another pitfall in working towards assessment is that learners may concentrate simply on doing the bare minimum needed in order to guarantee a pass.

 

Education aims at making children capable of becoming responsible, productive and useful members of a society. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are built through learning experiences and opportunities created for learners in school. It is in the classroom that learners can analyze and evaluate their experiences, learn to doubt, to question, to investigate and to think independently. The aim of education simultaneously reflects the current needs and aspirations of a society as well as its lasting values and human ideals. At any given time and place they can be called the contemporary and contextual articulations of broad and lasting human aspirations and values..

An understanding of learners, educational aims, the nature of knowledge, and the nature of the school as a social space can help us arrive at principles to guide classroom practices. Conceptual development is thus a continuous process of deepening and enriching connections and acquiring new layers of meaning. Alongside is the development of theories that children have about the natural and social worlds, including themselves in relation to others, which provide them with explanations for why things are the way they are and the relationship between cause and effect

 

Examinations in their present form are not the real measure of students’ potential because they cover only a small fraction of the course content. They do not cover evaluation of all the abilities. Nor do they provide for the application of multiple evaluation techniques which can assess the scholastic as well as the co-scholastic abilities of learners. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation facilitates students’ effective learning as well as their all round development of personality with its multiple evaluation tools and techniques and corrective measures. It is utmost important to make continuous and comprehensive evaluation as an integral part of teaching and learning process to promote standards of school education.

 

Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) refers to a system of school based evaluation of students that covers all aspects of student personality. It is a curricular initiative, attempting to shift emphasis from mere testing to holistic learning. ‘Continuous’ means that the evaluation of identified aspects of students’ growth and development is a continuous process rather than an event. It is built into the total teaching learning process & spread over the entire academic session. ‘Comprehensive’ mean the scheme attempts to cover both the scholastic and the co-scholastic aspects of students’ growth and development. ‘Evaluation’ is a systematic process of collecting, analyzing and reporting of information about students’ knowledge, attitudes, skills, intentions and/or behaviors regarding specific content, issues or experiences.

 

Concept of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation is a process of determining the extent to which the objectives are achieved. It is not only concerned with the appraisal of achievement, but also with its improvement. It involves information gathering, information processing, judgment forming, and decision-making. In recent years, there has been a growing concern for improving the quality of achievement of all students at elementary level. In this context the NPE, 1986 recommended that Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) be laid down at each stage of primary education, and that steps be undertaken to ensure that all students achieve these minimum levels of learning. As a follow-up, the MLL for each subject from classes I to V were stated in terms of competencies. Each competency constitutes an expected performance target that lends itself to criterion testing which is continuous and competency based. It becomes essential for the teachers to adopt a scheme of continuous evaluation that helps in confirming whether or not he learners have mastered the competencies. A competency also becomes a criterion to organize teaching-learning process, and at the same time to assess the students. It is a very well known fact that usually evaluation is done to measure the knowledge and understanding outcomes. The evaluation of skills and higher mental abilities are neglected to a great extent. The evaluation of co-scholastic aspects like attitudes, appreciation, interests, personal and social qualities of students are seldom carried out. The report of MLL and the national curriculum frame work of school education have specified certain personal and social qualities that need to be developed in children. They stress the point that the evaluation should be comprehensive in nature, wherein all learning experiences pertaining to scholastic, co-scholastic and personal and social qualities are assessed. The comprehensive evaluation not only helps in checking all the standards of performance in both scholastic and co-scholastic areas, but also in decision making regarding various aspects of teaching-learning process, promoting the students, increasing quality, efficiency, and accountability. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation necessitates the use of multiple evaluation techniques and tools in addition to certain conventional ones. This is required because different specific areas of pupil growth need different types of evaluation through certain techniques. The teacher has to select the most appropriate technique for a situation and develop the necessary tools for the same and decide upon the periodicity and timing of evaluation.

 

Purpose and Functions of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation

 

Purpose

  • Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation is intended to provide a holistic profile of the learner through assessment of both scholastic and co-scholastic aspects of education spread over the total span of instructional time in schools.
  • It helps to identify those positive attributes of the learner which are not usually assessed during the examinations conducted by the Board
  • As it is spread over a period of two years in classes IX and X it provides several opportunities for  the  school to identify the latent talents of the learners in different contexts.
  • To integrate teaching and evaluation and to test those kills and abilities which cannot be tested through written examinations at the end of the course?
  • To encourage students to apply themselves rigorously to their students.
  • To enable the teacher to realize the effectiveness of teaching-learning process.
  • To serve as a feedback for improving the contents of the courses, methods of teaching and teaching– learning process in general.

Functions

  • It helps the teacher to organize effective teaching strategies.
  • It helps in regular assessment to the extent and degree of Learner’s progress (ability and achievement with reference to specific Scholastic and Co-Scholastic areas).
  • It serves to diagnose weaknesses and permits the teacher to ascertain an individual learner’s strengths and weaknesses and her needs. It provides immediate feedback to the teacher, who can then decide whether a particular unit or concept needs a discussion again in the whole class or whether a few individuals are in need of remedial instruction.
  • By continuous evaluation, children can know their strengths and weaknesses. It provides the child a realistic self assessment of how he/she studies. It can motivate children to develop good study habits, to correct errors, and to direct their activities towards the achievement of desired goals. It helps a learner to determine the areas of instruction in where more emphasis is required.
  • It identifies areas of aptitude and interest. It helps in identifying changes in attitudes and value systems.
  • It helps in making decisions for the future regarding choice of subjects, courses and careers.
  • It provides information/reports on the progress of students in Scholastic and Co-Scholastic areas and thus helps in predicting the future success of the learner.

1.2.4    Merits and Demerits of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation

Merits

Introduction of CCE will have the following advantages:

 

  • It will help the learners to develop holistically in terms of personality, i.e. physically fit, mentally alert and emotionally balanced.
  • The students will have more time with them to develop their interests, hobbies and personalities
  • Students, parents and teachers would be more logical in making an informed choice about subjects.
  • It will equip students with Life Skills, especially creative and critical thinking skills, social skills and coping skills.

 

Other merits of CCE are as follows:

 

  • More Valid: It is more valid than external examinations as it covers all the topics of the syllabus through assessment on daily as well as periodic basis.
  • Regular and Punctual: Students will become regular and punctual. They will try to do their assignments and class work to the satisfaction of all concerned.
  • Discipline: The problem of indiscipline will remain subsided.
  • More reliable: It is more reliable than external examinations as it covers all the topics of the syllabus.
  • Motivational Value: It motivates the pupils to work regularly and thoroughly. They are motivated to work through out the year.
  • Diagnostic Value: It enables school authorities to diagnose pupils’ difficulties in learning and provide opportunities to find out needs, interests, abilities and aptitude of the learners.
  • No undue strain: Undue strain upon the students is relaxed.
  • Positive results: It aims at finding out what the child knows, what s/he can do and what intelligence s/he possess rather than finding out what s/he does not know, what s/he cannot do and what intelligence s/he does not posses.

Demerits

  • Time consuming: Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation is time consuming.
  • Heavy work load of teachers: The short term evaluation increases the work load of teachers. Moreover, it demands training, efficiency and resourcefulness on the part of the teachers.
  • Incomplete without external examination: In the absence of external examination/ a public examination at the end of the year it would be incomplete.
  • Shirkers of work: Shirkers of work in the teaching profession may not work and the standards of teaching-learning may go down.

1.2.5    Benefits of CCE to Students and Teachers

Benefits to Students

The scheme of CCE would help the learners, who are the primary stakeholders of school education, in the following manner:

  • It will reduce stress and anxiety relating to examinations among the young students, especially among the adolescents.
  • It will reduce the dropout rate as there will be less fear and anxiety related to performance.
  • There will be greater focus on learning rather than teaching.
  • It will enhance learning time of students.
  • It will help the learners to develop holistically as a result of the emphasis on the promotion of co-scholastic aspects of the personality.
  • It is expected to prepare the students for life by making students physically fit, mentally alert and emotionally balanced.
  • The students will have more time with them to develop their interests, hobbies and personalities.
  • It will enable the students, parents and teachers to make an informed choice about subjects at different stages of education.
  • It will promote learning in a friendly environment.
  • It will equip students with Life Skills, especially Creative and Critical thinking skills, social skills and coping skills.

Benefits to Classroom Teacher

The continuous and comprehensive evaluation helps a classroom teacher in the following ways:

  • To identify learning difficulties in mastering competencies and the intensity of such difficulties.
  • To improve students’ learning through diagnosis of their performance.
  • To plan appropriate remedial measures to enable the students who have learning difficulties.
  • To improve or alter instructional strategies to enhance the quality of teaching and learning.
  • To help in selecting of various tools, techniques and instructional materials as a support system in mastering the competencies.

 

1.2.6    Areas of Learner Assessment

CCE shall be carried out in four areas of student progress in all the elementary classes. These are as follows:

  1. Curricular areas
  2. Other curricular areas
  • Curricular Activities
  1. Personal Social Qualities

 

  1. Curricular Areas

Curricular areas includes all subjects of studies at elementary level, i.e. Language, Mathematics, General Science, Social Studies; and predominantly covers the cognitive domain aiming at the intellectual development of children. The evaluation of curricular areas requires more inputs to make it more systematic. Hence, various dimensions have been identified for assessment with variations from level to level.

Evaluation in curricular areas has to be continuous from the beginning of the academic session. An academic session is divided into two phases: April to September and October to March. In each phase there shall be three assessments at an interval of two months. Each assessment shall cover the portions covered within that period only. Portions covered in one assessment shall not be repeated in another or subsequent assessments.

In curricular areas there should be both formal and in-formal evaluation as a part of CCE. Assessment of students learning in these areas shall be done through teacher made unit tests. The answer papers shall be shown to the students and parents for sharing and feedback. A variety of tools/techniques shall be used in assessment, such as written, oral, assignment, project, observation etc. Further, peer evaluation and self evaluation can also to be used as a part of informal evaluation under CCE.

  1. Other curricular areas

Subjects like Art Education, Health and Physical Education, Peace Education and Work Education come under other curricular areas. Students taking part in Art education, work education, peace education and health and physical education should be observed and assessed by the teachers. Evaluation in these areas shall be made though project and performance etc. However, students’ learning and progress on the above areas are to be internally evaluated by the teachers in both inside and out side the class room, while the learners doing project work in group, interacting in a group while learning collaborately and / or performing any task in class room. There shall be at least two assessments in each phase of academic session with the help of three point-scale ( A, B, and C ) at primary level; and five-point scale at upper primary level. The results of evaluation shall be shared with student and parents through report cards.

  1. Curricular Activities

Every school organizes a variety of curricular activities  to provide students with opportunities for participation, exposure, experience and building his / her capabilities / skills  to promote various dimension of personality. The activities identified for different stages of education are as follows:

Curricular Activities for Classes I and II

  1. Language skills (Recitation with action, narration of events, story telling and drawing)
  2. Nature observation
  • Games and sports
  1. Other skills

Curricular Activities for Classes III to V

  1. i) Language related skills (Reading/recitation, story telling and speech)
  2. Scientific skill
  • Games and sports
  1. Others ( mono action, dance, song, drawing)

Curricular Activities for Classes VI to VIII

  1. Literary activities (Reading/recitation, debate, speech and creative work)
  2. Scientific skills (club activities, nature observation and computer literacy)
  • Games and sports
  1. Other (cultural activities, scouts and guides, first aid and  Red cross)

Prior to the NCF  2005, the activities such as debate, recitation, creative writing, music, drama, dance, painting, drawing, games, sports and other outdoor and indoor activities were termed as non-scholastic, co-scholastic or co-curricular activities and were mostly neglected in schools. However, NCF-2005 has considered that all activities being organized in the schools are essentially a part of curriculum and should be considered as curricular activities.

Each school should select multiple activities under each category so that each and every student gets opportunities for participation as per his/ her interest and suitability. A student’s performance shall be assessed by the teachers through observation. There shall be at least two assessments in each phase of academic session with the help of three-point scale – A, B, and C for primary level and five-point scale for upper primary level; and to share the same with student and parents through report card.

 

  1. Evaluation of Personal and Social Qualities (PSQ)

Students through interaction with their peers, teachers and school environment develop many Personal and Social Qualities. All such traits contribute to a student’s personality. The personal and social qualities to be promoted among the students at different stages of education are as follows:

For Classes I & II

  1. Cleanliness
  2. Cooperation
  • Use of toilets
  1. Punctuality
  2. Use of dust bin/ waste basket
  3. Washing of hands before and after eating
  • Respect towards superiors/elders
  • Taking care of animals/ birds and surroundings

 

For Classes III to V

  1. Cleanliness
  2. Co operation
  • Punctuality
  1. Environmental awareness and protection
  2. Love for physical labor
  3. Respect towards superior
  • Shouldering responsibility

 

For Classes VI & VII

  1. Truthfulness
  2. Cooperation
  • Emotional stability
  1. Punctuality
  2. Environmental awareness
  3. Love for physical work/ labor
  • Respect towards supervisors
  • Protection of environment
  1. Appreciation
  2. Responsibility
  3. Leadership
  • Honesty

PSQs as suggested in NCF 2005 are to observed as an integral part of curricular areas and curricular activities in each and every class; and as an elements of affective domain. Keeping in mind the maturity level of the students, the teacher shall observe the direction of development rather than its status. The teacher will observe and record PSQs using behavior indicators with the help of three-point scale – A, B, and C for primary level and five-point scale for upper primary level so as to eliminate the unhealthy competitions.

 

  • Evaluation of the Areas of Learner Assessment

 

The following are the suggested evaluation criteria for different areas of learner assessment:

  1. 0 Evaluation of Curricular Areas

(Language, Mathematics, Environmental Studies (Science and Social Science)

Level Classes Techniques Tools Periodicity Reporting
Primary

Level-I

I  & II Ø  Observation

Ø  Oral

Ø  Written (no formal examination)

Ø  Observation

Schedule

Ø  Oral Questions

Ø  Home work

Ø  Class work

 

Ø  Day-to-day observation by the teachers

Ø  At the end of competency/ unit

Ø  Grading (three point: A, B, C) or three levels of performance
Level-II III, IV & V Ø  Oral

Ø  Written

Ø  Oral Questions

Ø  Questions

Paper

Ø  Assignment

Ø  Project

Ø  Diagnostic test

Ø  Self Evaluation

 

Ø  After an unit

Ø  After a term

Ø  Grading (three point: A, B, C) or three levels of performance
Upper Primary VI to VIII Ø  Oral

Ø  Written

Ø  Practical

Ø  Oral Questions

Ø  Questions

Paper

Ø  Assignment

Ø  Project

Ø  Diagnostic test

Ø  Activity/ experiment

Ø  Peer evaluation

 

Ø  After an unit

Ø  After a term

Ø  Absolute grading (5 point scale)

 

 

  1. 1 Evaluation of Other Curricular Areas

(Art and Aesthetic Education, Work Education, Physical and Health Education)

Level Classes Techniques Tools Periodicity Reporting
Primary

 

I to V Ø  Organizing activities Ø  Observation

Ø  Oral Questions

Ø  Class work

 

Ø  Day-to-day observation by the teachers

Ø  Overall Evaluation at the interval of two months

Ø  Direct Grading (03 point) or three levels of performance
Upper Primary VI to VIII Ø  Organizing activities

Ø  Deliberating an Activities

Ø  Observation

Ø  Oral Questions

Ø  Class work

Ø  Assignment

 

Ø  Day-to-day observation by the teachers

Ø  Overall Evaluation at the interval of two months

Ø  Direct grading (5 point)

 

  1. 2 Evaluation of Curricular Activities

            (Literary, scientific, cultural, games and sports)

Level Areas Techniques Tools Periodicity Reporting
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Primary

Level

Activities

Ø  Literacy

Ø  Scientific

Ø  Cultural

Ø  Observation Ø  Observation schedule

Ø  Peer Evaluation

Ø  Anecdotal Record

Ø  Organization of activities and observation by teacher

 

Ø  Direct Grading on 03 points scale or three levels of performance
Sports/ Games Ø  Observation Ø  Observation schedule

Ø  Anecdotal Record

Ø  Day-to-day observation by the teachers

Ø  Organization of activities and observation by teacher

 

 

Ø  Direct Grading on 03 points or three levels of performance
Miscellaneous Ø  Observation Ø  Observation schedule

Ø  Anecdotal Record

Ø  Day-to-day observation by the teachers

Ø  Organization of activities and observation by teacher

 

Ø  Direct Grading on 03 points scale or three levels of performance
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Upper Primary

Level

Activities

Ø  Literacy

Ø  Scientific

Ø  Cultural

Ø  Observation Ø  Observation schedule

Ø  Peer Evaluation

Ø  Anecdotal Record

Ø  Organization of activities and observation by teacher

 

Ø  Direct Grading on 03/05 points Scale
Sports/ Games Ø  Observation Ø  Observation schedule

Ø  Anecdotal Record

Ø  Day-to-day observation by the teachers

Ø  Organization of activities and observation by teacher

 

 

Ø  Direct Grading on 03/05 points Scale
Miscellaneous Ø  Observation Ø  Observation schedule

Ø  Anecdotal Record

Ø  Day-to-day observation by the teachers

Ø  Organization of activities and observation by teacher

 

Ø  Direct Grading on 03/05 points Scale

 

  1. 3 Evaluation of Personal Social Qualities (PSQs)

(Habits, Interest, Attitude and Values)

Level Areas Techniques Tools Periodicity Reporting
Primary

Level

Personal Social Qualities Ø  Observation

Ø  Interview

Ø  Check List/

Ø  Observation Schedule

Ø  Day-to-day observation by the teachers

 

Ø  Descriptive statements
Upper Primary

Level

Personal Social Qualities Ø  Observation

Ø  Interview

Ø  Observation Schedule Ø  Day-to-day observation by the teachers

 

Ø  Direct grading on 03/05 points.

Ø  Once in every term

 Record of Health Status at Primary and Upper Primary Level

Note: Twice in a year by Doctor/ Health Worker.

  • Height……………cm.
  • Weight……………..cm.
  • Chest (Normal)………………….Expanded……………………
  • Eye Sight………………………….
  • Teeth………………………………
  • Physical Defects (if any)……………………………..
  • History of long disease (if any)………………………

Reference:

https://www.academia.edu

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *