Knowledge is expanding alarmingly in this new technological age. Therefore equipping students with new knowledge is the main aim of our school curriculum. Our school curriculum is much concerned about the learner. The teachers should adopt new methods to equip the pupil to adjust with the changing circumstances. There are so many innovative methods available today. Such a method, which is learner centred, is cooperative learning. This study examines that how teachers perceive the incorporation and use of cooperative learning in teaching-learning process. This is a normative survey and the investigators selected a sample of 140 teachers from kollam district that were chosen randomly. The data were collected with the help of an attitude scale which was constructed by the investigator.
Keywords: Cooperative learning, Perception.
COOPERATIVE LEARNING: A PERCEPTION OF UPPER PRIMARY TEACHERS
Author: Rejo R.
Research scholar, G.C.T.E. Thycaud., Thiruvananthapuram.
[shc_shortcode class=”shc_mybox”]Published in: Contemporary Researches in Education, Edited by Dr.Asha J.V. and Naseerali M.K.[/shc_shortcode]
Education, in the modern concept, can be regarded as a tripolar-process involving the interaction of the personality of the educator and educant in a social setting which affect the modification of the behaviour of the educant. A tripolar theory of education was proposed by Adamson (1997). According to him, “The essence of education consists in adjustment between the child and child’s world”. The teacher continuously design and plans educational experience in the light of social environment. Education has to catch to the individual as well as the social needs. These instruments, urges, impulses and tendencies have to be directed towards society. This is possible when the child participates in the social situations and there is an interaction between him and the environment.
Today’s school curriculum is much concerned about the learner. The learner is the most important factor in the teaching learning process. Learning is something students do, not something that is done to student. Learning is not a spectator sport. It requires student direct and active involvement and participation. Like mountain climbers, students most easily scale the lights of learning when they are part of a cooperative team (Johnson, 1994).
Cooperation is working together to accomplish shared goals. Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups through which students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning. Though there are limitations on when and where you can use competitive and individualistic learning appropriately, you may structure any learning task in any subject area with any curriculum cooperatively (Johnson, 1994).
In a study named, “Use of Peer Tutoring, Cooperative Learning, and Collaborative Learning: Implications for Reducing Anti-social Behaviour of Schooling Adolescents”, published in US-China Education Review A 11 (2012), indicate that teachers are aware of peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and collaborative teaching as strategies for reducing anti-social behaviour of schooling adolescents and that to a large extent, they are applying these strategies in their classrooms. In another study named, “The Jigsaw Technique and Self-Efficacy of Vocational Training Students: A Practice Report”, published in European Journal of Psychology of Education September 2012, revealed that vocational trainees will get benefit of increasing their self efficacy by implementing the jigsaw approach in classrooms.
In traditional teaching, it is easy to control the processing of learning because it is teacher centred and its presentation is logical and sequential. While cooperative learning is basically learner centred. In this technological age knowledge is expanding alarmingly. It is necessary to adopt new methods to equip the pupil to adjust with the changing circumstances. But for effective instruction and learning, a teacher should have a positive attitude towards the teaching method. Hence the investigator felt the need to find out the attitude of teachers towards cooperative learning.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS
Cooperative Learning: A learning strategy in which the pupils are structured into groups of peers who work together towards a common goal. It places students of differing abilities on the same team and uses group rewards to encourage learning.
Perception: It is the process by which people translate sensory impressions into a coherent and unified view of the world around them. Though necessarily based on incomplete and unverified information, perception is equated with reality for most practical purposes and guides human behaviour in general.
The present study is a Normative Survey study that is intended to collect data regarding the attitude of teachers towards the inclusion of cooperative learning in primary school curriculum.
Sample of the Study:The population of the study is the primary school teachers of kollam district. Schools were selected by stratified random sampling method in which total 140 teachers ie, 70 teachers from government schools and 70 teachers from private schools from different region of kollam district were participated in this survey.
Tool Used: A self constructed attitude scale which was used for the study. It is a three point attitude scale with 16 items. Maximum score is 48 and minimum score is 16.
Data Analysis: In this study, the researcher used descriptive statistical measures to compare the attitude of teachers towards the inclusion of cooperative learning in primary school curriculum. A t-test procedure was used to test the differences among the attitude of teachers based on type of schools.
ANALYSIS OF THE DATA
Attitude of teachers towards the inclusion of cooperative learning in the primary school curriculum
Table 1. Mean and SD of Teachers’ Attitude
The above table indicates that the teachers’ attitude towards the inclusion of Cooperative learning in primary school curriculum was high. The mean value of teachers’ attitude (37; 77%) indicates that they are having high attitude towards the inclusion of Cooperative learning in primary school curriculum.
Thus the hypothesis, teachers are having positive attitude towards the inclusion of Cooperative learning in primary school curriculum (H1), is accepted.
Comparison of attitude of teachers in government schools and private schools towards the inclusion of cooperative learning in primary school curriculum
Table 2. Computed t-value of Attitude of Teachers in Government Schools and Private Schools
|Group||No. of pupils||Mean||m1-m2||Standard Deviation||SEm||t value|
The above table shows that the difference between the attitude of teachers in government schools and in private schools towards the inclusion of cooperative learning in primary school curriculum is significant at 0.01 level (table value= 2.58). It can be understood from the table that the teachers from government schools posses’ high attitude towards the inclusion of cooperative learning in primary school curriculum.
Thus, the null hypothesis, “There is no significant difference between teachers in government schools and private schools in respect of their attitude towards the inclusion of cooperative learning in primary school curriculum”, is rejected.
The major findings of the study reveal the existence of a high positive attitude among the teachers towards the inclusion of cooperative learning in primary school curriculum. Among these the teachers from government schools are having more favourable attitude towards the inclusion of cooperative learning in primary school curriculum.
Ahluwalia, S.P. (1978). Manual for Teacher Attitude Inventory, Agra: National psychological corporation.
Adamson, J. M. (1997). Cooperative learning with interactive multimedia. The effect of gender and interactive multimedia. The effect of gender and group composition on attitude and interaction. Doctorial dissertation, Howard state university. Dissertation abstracts international, 58(3), 1976.
Celine, Darnon., Céline, Buchs.,& Delphine, Desbar. (2012). The Jigsaw Technique and Self-Efficacy of Vocational Training Students: A Practice Report. European Journal of Psychology of Education..27, 439-449. doi. 10.1007/s10212-011-0091-4
Eskay, M., Onu, V. C., Obiyo, N.,& Obidoa, M. (2012) . Use of Peer Tutoring, Cooperative Learning, and Collaborative Learning: Implications for Reducing Anti-social Behaviour of Schooling Adolescents. US-China Education Review .11. Retrieved from the ERIC database.( ED538819).
Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Holubec, E. J. (1994). Cooperative learning in the classroom. Virginia: Association for supervision and curriculum development Alexandria.