ICT is nothing but the communication of information by the use of Technology. The term technology includes from ‘gramaphones’ to the sophisticated ‘computer’ and transmission technologies.

Use of ICT in classrooms:

The time demands a teacher to present the content in the best way that ensures maximum comprehension and retention in students without creating the fatigues. All the learning processes are aimed to acquire knowledge, understanding, application, attitude, interest, skill etc. It has been widely agreed that the more the senses used, the more the effectiveness is. Without questioning the conventional methods of teaching, it is fact that technologies evoke multisensory approaches in learning.

The various ICT devices that can be used in class rooms are:

Audio Devices: Audio players, Mic, Speakers

Video Devices: TV, Camera, Tablet etc

Projective Devices: LCD/LED projector, OHP/Slide projector, Interactive White Boards,

Transmitting Devices: TV satellite receiver, Edusat Node, FM, Internet,

ICT Platforms:

Audio alone

Video alone

Movie clips

LIVE Programs

Recorded streaming

Internet Resources

Evaluation packages

Virtual Classrooms

Simulations etc


Social Media


The teaching learning process in class rooms can generally be divided into the following stages in all the behaviouristc and constructivistic approaches.


This is teachers’ preparation for the lesson. Objectives, content, time duration, teaching aids, previous knowledge etc

Delivering/Development stage:

                This stage is also called developing stage since the knowledge is expected to be developed by the students at this stage. Teachers take care to introduce, present the content interestingly with the use of ICT.

Use of appropriate technology aids at the right place will ensure high intensity in learning.

Evaluation stage

It is worth to test the effectiveness of the class with respect to the objectives of the lesson. Both the formative and summative assessments can also be done by using technology devices and platforms.



Lessons plan i the plan of action for a teaching learning session in the classroom. Teachers are to be wise enough to chose the right content, right technology teaching aids at the right time for the designing of an effective lesson.

Care must be taken while using the technology for not to deviate the class as an entertainment session. The excess use of technology will also take a deviation in this regard.

“Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn.”― Benjamin Franklin

Provisions for pupils engagement is also to be included rather than teacher-dominated presentations. It can be ensured with the use of simulations, virtual labs, evaluation techniques etc in the class.



Biology Unit 2, Chapter 16 (Changes in ecosystems)

Thursday, 11th October, 2012.


Class duration: 70 mins

Class setting: Science laboratory


Topic: Changes in Ecosystems (Intro)

Learning intention:

  • To develop understanding of changes to ecosystems over time.
  • Recognise the scope, intensity and impact of various natural changes
  • Extend awareness of impacts of human-induced changes on ecosystems
  • Identify techniques for monitoring and maintaining ecosystems.

Thursday, 11/10/2012

  • Unit 1 revision questions
  • Group presentation (preparation)
Time (mins) Teacher activity
20 –         Intro video

–         Discuss frequency of change

–         Give example: Climate change (other examples of climate change?)



–         Pollutants have water vapour adhered to it = man made clouds.

–         Clouds hold HEAT in. So no clouds = colder.

–         After 9/11, shut down jet traffic in USA for three days.

–         Scientists able to observe during that 3 day period, there was about 1*C change over the 3 days.

–         This change over a long period = climate change… can impact ecosystems.



intergovernmental panel on climate change

–         Different countries put their data together

–         Study how changes in temperature affect our planet

–         Raise in temperature affect arctic ecosystems more than ecosystems closer to equator.

–         Impact on the species that have evolved to live in cold temperatures.



1ºC change over next 100 years

–         All coral becomes bleached.

–         Coral made up of two things = a coral (essentially an animal) + algae (plant, lives mutualistic with them)

–         Coral will extrude (force out) the algae, so can’t use photosynthetic process of algae = bleached.

Increase temperature = warmer.. Affect 10% of world’s ecosystems.

– Affect arctic ecosystems more.

– Species can’t evolve quickly enough to adapt to the change in climate = impacted by that.



2ºC change over next 100 years


3ºC change over next 100 years

–         1/2 of nature reserves unable to meet conservation objectives

–         Manmade change… Environment impacted by humans.


… Slide 8



Primary change

Due to human intervention or natural agents



20+10 SLIDE 10 & 11 [ACTIVITY]


–         Manmade change: Introduction of exotic/alien-species

o   Noxious species, e.g. rabbits, cane toads. Page 510.
–         Manmade change: Overharvesting of a biological resource (e.g. fishing too much, hunting of animals) page 517.
–         Natural change agents: Bushfires. Page 528.

o   Obligate seeder plants (seeds survive and germinate after fires)

o   Vegetative reproducer plants (regrow through means of (epicormic)buds located under bark or in underground stems/rhizomes)

o   Fire is important agent of change in some Australian ecosystems (e.g. page 531 “fire for parrots”)

10 SLIDE 12

Primary succession: ecosystem must rebuild after being completely destroyed (including the soil)

–          Main feature of primary ecological succession = soil formation.
– Rock exposed of receding glacier

–          New land formed by volcanic explosions

–          Mosses and lichens (spore bearing plants) = pioneer organisms

–           Lichens secret toxins into rocks = break down into soil

–          Wearing down of rocks by weather/water = form soil

–          When mosses and lichens die = biomass degrades into soil


Secondary succession: ecosystem must rebuild with the soil still intact.

–          e.g. small bushfire… doesn’t have to go through process of soil formation…

–          No pioneer organisms because there are already organisms in and around soil.

–          Process of succession stops when a stable community becomes established.

–          Stable community = climax community.


Frequency of change:

Changes in ecosystems may occur regularly, sporadically, or due to one-off events.

(1) Identify a change agent that acts on an ecosystem as follows:

Regularly, sporadically (irregularly), or as a one-of event.


(2) Give an example of change in an ecosystem that is due to:
a. human intervention… b. a naturally-occurring agent of change.

– Invasive exotic species cause negative effects in ecosystems.

– Over-harvesting of a biological resources can cause populations to crash.

– Fire is an important agent of change in some Australian ecosystems.




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