The present research work is an attempt to find out the impact of Study Habit (SH), Socio -Economic Status (SES) on Academic Achievement (AA) among school students in Chennai, Tamilnadu. Normative survey method was applied and null hypothesis was framed. The sample consisted of 322 students from different schools in Chennai. B.V. Patel’s (1976) study habit inventory was used. The data were collected, recorded and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The scoring was prepared using Normal Probability Curve (NPC) method. The study indicated that statistically significant positive correlation between study habit and academic achievement at 0.01 (r=0.184) levels. Hence the present study concluded that the study habit influenced on academic achievement greatly than other factors.

Keywords: Study Habit, Socio-economic status, Academic achievement, Normal probability curve and Correlation.


Author: Sridhar Ramachandran1, Pandia Vadivu P2, Mohan Kumar B3 and Saravanan Selvam4

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1 Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Gojan College of Teacher Education, Chennai.

2 Assistant Professor, Division of Cognitive Science, School of Education, Tamilnadu Open University, Saidapet, Chennai.

3 Ph.D (UGC-JRF) Scholar, School of Education, Pondicherry University, Puducherry.

4 Department of Mathematical Science, Velammal Group of Institution, Chennai.

Published in: Contemporary Researches in Education, Edited by Dr.Asha J.V. and Naseerali M.K.



Education is a continuous process and it should emphasis the learning of happiness throughout in the life. From this perspective, study habit, socio-economic status and academic achievement play crucial role in the phase of education. Study habit is a well planned and deliberate pattern of study which has attained a form of a consistency on the part of the students towards understanding academic subjects and passing at examination. Socio-economic status is used to measure the individual based on income, education etc., to live in the society. Academic achievement is one of the important factors of the phase of education.

In views of increasing reports on academic achievement around the world, the purpose of the present study was to find out the significant differences among the variables and relationship exists between dependent and independent variable. This work also intends to analyse the attitude of school students towards the study habit.


Saroda V (1990) reported that the study skills are positively related to academic achievement. Another study conducted by Devi and Maywi (2003) stated that the family and school further affects the AA of residential school children studying IX & X class. Nouhi E, Shakoori A and Nakhei N (2008) conducted a pilot study in study habit, study skills and AA of medical science students at Kerman University. They reported that study skills had a significant correlation with academic achievement (r=0.101, P<0.005), while study habit correlation with academic achievement was not significant (r=0.0085, P>0.03).


  1. To analyse the attitude of school students towards study habit.
  2. To study the influential relationship among study habit, socio-economic status and academic achievement of the school students.
  3. To find out the significant difference among the variables such as gender, medium of instruction, class studying, type of management, board of affiliation, type of school and locality.




Totally ten null hypothesis was framed and they are non –directional hypothesis. There is no significant difference between Male and Female; Tamil and English medium; Secondary and Higher Secondary; Government, Government aided and Private school; State, Matriculation and Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) schools; Boys, Girls and Co-education; Urban, Sub urban and Rural school students toward study habit. Also there will be significant relationship exist between Academic Achievement and Study Habit, Study Habit and Socio-economic status and Socio-economic status and Study habit respectively.


Method: Normative survey method was applied in the present study. (Nouchi. E, Shakoori A & Nakhei N, 2009).

Population: The Secondary (IX and X) and higher secondary (XII and XI) School students who were affiliated to various educational board such as State, Matriculation and CBSE consisted of population of the study.

Sample: The sample of the present study was school students (N=322), out of these 82 (41 boys and 41 girls) were drawn from class IX, 82 (41 boys and 41 girls) were drawn from class X, 79 (41 boys and 38 girls) from class XI and 79 (40 boys and 39 girls) from class XII respectively. Total samples were collected from nine different schools of Chennai.

Tools Used:

Study Habit: The standard study habit inventory (B.V. Patel, 1976) consisted of 45 statements. The reliability value (0.77) was calculated by spilt half method and the concurrent validity was 0.74. Out of 45 statements, 35 statements are positive and remaining 15 statements were negative which have to be checked on two point attitude scale. For each statement the score value was given as 1 and 0 was given for two responses namely Agree and Disagree in case of positive statements. The scoring was reversed in case of negative statements. It consists of seven dimensions namely home environment and planning of work, reading and note taking habits, planning of subjects, habits of concentration, preparation from examination, general habits and attitudes and school environment.

Socio-economic Status Scale: Factors such as ordinal position of the child, size and type of family, education and occupation of parents and family, monthly income were taken into consideration in this scale.

Academic Achievement: The two average marks of the students in previous examinations were taken as academic achievement scores and it could be dully filled by the class teacher in the data sheet.


Based on the normal probability curve (NPC) method the scoring was prepared with the help of maximum and minimum score obtained by the respondents. (a) Study Habit; the maximum score of ‘45’ and minimum score of ‘14’ could be obtained and the respondents were grouped into three categories in the order as poor (14-24), mediocre (25-37) and good (38-45). (b) Similar method was employed to socio-economic status scale; the maximum score of ‘26’ and minimum score of ‘8’ would be obtained. Therefore the respondents were segregated into three categories as poor (8-12), mediocre (13-21) and good (22-26). (c) Academic Achievement: the average AA scores were converted into four categories such as excellent (75-100%) as ‘A’ grade, Good (60-74%) as ‘B’ grade, Average (50-59%) as ‘C’ grade and finally poor (below 50%) as ‘D’ grade.

Data Collection:

The inventory along with socio-economic status scale were administered to the school students and academic achievement of the students could be filled by the class teacher after obtaining Prior permission from the Principals of the different schools in the Chennai.  The random sampling technique was applied to collect data from the school students. The instructions were given to students to fill the personal and institutional profile and the data sheets were distributed to the students and worked to respond to all statements. Furthermore, the researcher personally met the class teacher to collect the information pertaining to score obtaining by the students. The collected dates were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS-version 16.02.


The results were analysed using descriptive statistics and differential statistics. The main purpose of the descriptive research in description of the state or affairs as it exists at present. It involves calculation of one of the measure of central tendency and variability. On other hand, the differential analysis involves the most important by which the researcher is determine the statistical significance difference between groups.-  ‘t’ test, ‘F’ test, ANOVA (analysis of variance) etc, used.

The percentage of the respondents (N=322) with respect to SH) by NPC method in the order as mediocre. 72% (n=231) poor -16% (n=53) and good – 12% (n=38). Similarly for SES scale among school students were found to be mediocre – 62% (n=201), poor – 22% (n=71) and good – 16% (n=50) respectively. The percentage of AA of the students in the present study was found to be in the order as excellent – 43% (n=140) good – 39% (n=125), mediocre – 13% (n=42) and poor – 5% (n=15).


Table 1. Analysis of Variables of the Study Habit Using ‘t’ Scores


Si.No. Variable Calculated ‘t’ – value Table ‘t’ value Level of significance at 0.05 level
1 Gender 2.947 1.96 Significant
2 Medium of instruction 0.559 1.96 Non- significant
3 Studying class 0.984 1.96 Non- significant


Table 2. Analysis of Variables between and within Groups of SH & AA by ‘F’- Scores




Si. No. Variable Calculate ‘F’ – value Table ‘F’ value Level of significance at 0.05 level
1 Type of management 4.163 2.22 Significant
3.177 2.22 Significant
2 Board of affiliation 2.999 2.22 Significant
4.279 2.22 Significant
3 Type of school 2.956 2.22 Significant
3.188 2.22 Significant
4 Locality 8.210 2.22 Significant
2.43 2.22 Significant


Table 3. Pearson’s Correlations between Academic Achievement, Study Habit and Socio Economic Status

Si. No. Relationship No.of sample Degree of freedom (N-2) Calculated ‘r’-value Table ‘r’ value Level of significance
1 AA & SH 322 320 0.184 0.138


Statistically significant/ positive correlation
2 AA & SES 322 320 0.013 0.138 Non significant / negative correlation
3 SH & SES 322 320 0.014 0.138 Non significant / negative correlation


Our findings of the present study indicate (a) The positive correlation exists between study habit and academic achievement was determined by Pearson’s correlation method (b) Found out the statistically significant/ non significant of the variables.  (c) The respondents (N=322) were analyzed and grouped into various categories (Poor, Mediocre & Good) using NPC method. Despite of the limitations of the present study, the relationship between academic achievement and study habit was proved to be statistically significant (positive correlation) Pearson’s correlation method. Since the table ‘r’-value is 0.138 at 0.01 level of significance, where as the calculated ‘r’-value as 0.184. In live with this, it is suggested the study be replicated in other district, regional, state or abroad using the prescribed tools. To some extend the same study could administrate to college student and need to conduct individual counselling program to improve the Study Habit for their fruitful life.

Although several factors such as intelligence, self-control, study skill, socio economic status, etc., attribute the performance of every individual. Therefore the researchers concluded that the study habit influenced on academic achievement greatly than other factors. Hence the present study explains the scenario of students’ curricular performance towards study habit.




Devi. S.,& Mayuri. K. (2003). The effects of family and school on the academic achievement of residential school children. J.Comm.Guid.Res. 20(2), 139-148.

Nouhi. E., Shakoori, A.,& Nakhei, N. (2008). Study habit and skills and academic achievement of students in Kerman University of Medical Science. Journal of Medicine Education 12, (34), 77-80.

Patel. B.V. (1976). Manual for study habit inventory. Agra Psychology Research Cell, Tiwari Kothi, Belanganj, Agra, 1-8.

Saroda, V. (1999). Study of impact of SES, study habit and achievement motivation on academic achievement of higher secondary students. The Progress of Education. 99, 122-124.

Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Version 16.02. (2008) IBM Corporation. Available at



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