TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOM

 

Abstract

How to effectively integrate technology into the classroom has been a growing concern for teachers, parents, and other stakeholders within the field of secondary education. Bearing the genuine agreement with this concern the current study was undertaken to investigate the role of technology in constructivist classroom with respect to higher order learning skills namely metacognitive and cognitive style. In order to conduct the study sample of 100 students of class nine from one P.S.E.B and one C.B.S.E. school of Ferozepur City were taken. The selected students were randomly assigned to two groups. One group was considered as experimental group (which was taught by the investigator through constructivist technological approach using computers) and the other as control group (taught by regular classroom teaching). Metacognitive inventory and Group embedded figure test were adminstered to both the groups before and after the respective treatments to access the changes in their metacognitive and cognitive style respectively.The results of current investigation revealed that infusion of technology in the process of education  and adoption of constructivist approach in the teaching- learning process self-empowers the learners to define problems, research a wide variety of material and media, conceptualize, reason and clearly communicate their solutions using a wide range of furthering the development of higher order skills viz. metacognitive and cognitive style of the students.  

Keywords: Technology, Constructivist classroom, Higher order skills, Metacognitive, Cognitive style.

ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOM WITH RESPECT TO HIGHER ORDER LEARNING SKILLS

Dr. Anita Dhawan1 and Jaspreet Kaur2

1Associate Professor, Dev Samaj College of Education for Women, Ferozepur City.

2M.Ed. Student,       Dev Samaj College of Education for Women, Ferozepur City.

[shc_shortcode class=”shc_mybox”]Published in: Contemporary Researches in Education, Edited by Dr.Asha J.V. and Naseerali M.K.[/shc_shortcode]

INTRODUCTION

Educational technologies, specifically computer and the Internet technologies, have apparently become powerful tools in the classroom as they change the way we teach and learn today. Technology integration, if done properly, can do many things to help in the process of creating more authentic learning environments and more.  Many of the studies report, if the learning environment is technologically rich, it can increase self-esteem and enthusiasm for learning (Fouts, 2000). Research also has shown that technology integration increases the chance of interaction within the learning environment (Keengwe et. al., 2008).Our current educational system originated during the Industrial Revolution.  It was aimed at training children to read basic material, write at a basic level, do simple mathematics, and follow directions (Burns, 1993).  Now, educationalists assert that not only students need to be able to do the above but also must be able to: create, design, teach, define problems, quickly assimilate relevant data, conceptualise, reorganise information, make intuitive leaps, and work collaboratively to find solutions (Burns, 1993) and (Engle & Conant, 2002).The type of thinking processes a student needs to develop in order to accommodate changes in both the type and quantity of knowledge with which she/he will be confronted as society continues to change, go beyond the simple learning of facts and content (Raghavan & Glaser , 1995) and (Peters, 2003).

Furthermore, it is currently required that students become self-empowered learners who can define problems, research a wide variety of material and media, conceptualise, reason and clearly communicate their solutions using a wide range of media (Engle & Conant, 2002). All this is in strong contrast to merely gathering knowledge by rote learning which was more typical of earlier times(Gross, 1991) and (Mather, 2004). Hence the current process of education must aim at the development of various higher order skills namely: metacognition cognitive style, comprehension, critical thinking, problem solving, insight, context, creativity and procedural knowledge among the students. That is why pedagogies of school reform are now highly influenced by and built around the “constructivist” theories of learning, assuming the use of technology in education for active and meaningful knowledge construction. The infusion of technology in the constructivist classroom enables the learners   to actively participate in classroom discussions, construct their own knowledge and arrive at solutions of various problems. This in turn helps in development of insight, problem solving and critical thinking furthering the process of development of various higher order skills.

Constructivist pedagogy as based on the belief that meaningful learning occurs when learners are actively involved in a process of meaning-making and knowledge construction, rather than passively receiving and memorizing information (rote-learning). Learners become the meaning-makers, as they attempt to understand new ideas. As such, constructivist teaching is likely to promote critical thinking and create intrinsically-motivated and autonomous learners. Constructivism represents a paradigm shift from education based on behaviourism to education based on cognitive theory. Fosnot (1996) has provided a recent summary of these theories and describes constructivist teaching practice. Behaviourist epistemology focuses on intelligence, domains of objectives, levels of knowledge, and reinforcement. Constructivist epistemology assumes that learners construct their own knowledge on the basis of interaction with their environment.

Research suggests that technology alone cannot effect educational change (Strommen, 1992). According to the National Council for Research, “if technology is to make a contribution to improving student learning, it must be aligned with educational practices that are most likely to achieve desired learning goals.” There appears to be a central theme within the debate of whether or not technology integration is working to enhance learning. Several researchers have suggested that technology integration combined with constructivist teaching strategies appears to be one of the most promising ways to use technology to affect learning. Constructivism and the infusion of technology in the curriculum could improve the achievement of all students in the core subject areas” (Lunenberg, 1998). Experts suggest that using technology, particularly the internet, along with constructivist strategies “advances higher level instruction, such as problem solving and increased learner control that is student-centered” (Lunenberg, 1998). Jonassen (1999) describes constructivist technology-enriched methods as those which build knowledge resulting from activity and an effective use of technology in education.

HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY

  1. There exists no difference in the attainment scores of higher order learning skill (metacognition) taught through routine classroom teaching and constructivist technology approach.
  2. There exists no difference in the attainment of higher order learning skill (metacognitive) among P.S.E.B and C.B.S.E. schools.
  3. There exists no difference in the attainment scores of higher order learning skill (cognitive style) taught through routine classroom teaching and constructivist technology approach.
  4. There exists no significant difference in the improvement of cognitive style of P.S.E.B and C.B.S.E school students, taught through routine classroom teaching and constructivist technological approach.
  5. There is no relationship between technological input and attainment of gain score in relation to higher order learning skills.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF KY TERMS

Technology: Technology, however, as a distinctive phenomenon refers to the use of knowledge, materials, tools, techniques, systems, and sources of power to make life easier and better and to work more productively and efficiently.

Constructivism: Constructivist pedagogy is based on the belief that meaningful learning occurs when learners are actively involved in a process of meaning-making and knowledge construction, rather than passively receiving and memorizing information (rote-learning).

Higher Order Skills: In this study this terms was categorized as follow:

Metacognitive: Metacognitive is knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes and products or  anything related to them, metacognitive refers, among  other things,  to the active monitoring and consequent regulation and orchestration of  these processes in relation to cognitive object or data.

Cognitive Style: Cognitive style or “thinking style” is a term used in cognitive psychology to describe the way individuals think, perceive and remember      information .The construct of field dependence (FD) and field independence (FI)               manifest   across a broad spectrum of cognitive processing behaviours. Specifically when interacting with stimuli, children who are FD may find it difficult to locate the information they are seeking because it becomes masked by other information within the stimulus field. Contrastingly, FI typically find it easier to     recognize and select the critical information from the surrounding field (Jonassen and  Grabowski, 1993).

RANDOMLY SELECTED GROUPS
EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

 

GROUP GGGRGROUP

      CONTROL GROUP
               PRE-TEST
TAUGHT BY CONSTRUCTIVIST

TECHNOLOGICAL  APPROACH

 

               PRE-TEST

 

                 POST-TEST
   DIFFERENCE IN PRETEST AND

POST TEST SCORES

TAUGHT BY TRADITIONAL METHOD
                 POST-TEST

 

   DIFFERENCE IN PRETEST AND

POST TEST SCORES

 

COMPARED

DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE

In order to conduct the study, 9th class students from one P.S.E.B and one C.B.S.E. school of Ferozepur City were taken. The selected students were randomly assigned to two groups. One group was considered as experimental group (which was taught by the investigator through constructivist technological approach using computers) and the other as control group (taught by regular classroom teaching). In total, a sample of 100 students were selected, 50 students from each school respectively.

DESIGN OF THE STUDY

For the purpose of present investigation “Randomized groups, pre test –post test design” is employed. Three variables namely technology, constructivist approach (independent variables) and higher order learning skills (dependent variable) are studied. . The higher order learning skills acquisition is checked as a difference in post-test and pre-test results. The schematic layout of the study is presented in figure below:

INSTRUMENTS USED

Metacognitive Inventory: This test was developed by Dr. Punita Goyal. The inventory contains 30 items dealing with both the aspects of meatcognitive i.e knowledge of cognitive process and regulation of cognitive process. Item nos. 2,  3,  5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 22, 28 and 30 deal with knowledge of cognitive processes and item nos. 1, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26 and 29 deal with regulation of cognitive processes. Each item is a statement followed by a four-point scale: ‘not at all’ is given a weightage of 1 point. Similarly 2, 3 and 4 points are given for markings on ‘somewhat’, ‘to a considerable extent’, and ‘very much so’ respectively. To find out the score of an individual the weightages assigned to him or her on all items are added. This sum will form the total score of the respondent. The items have arranged in a sequence according to their statistical properties. The test possesses satisfactory content validity and the value of reliability coefficient for the test is 0.82.

Image result for technology in classrooms

Group Embedded Figure Test-Geft: This test was developed by Philip K.Oltman, Evelyn, Raskin and Harman A. Witkin to measure the cognitive style dimension of field independence/dependence of the sample. It has 18 complex figures and requires the subjects to locate a simple visual figure embedded within a complex one. Besides the seven simple forms (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) that have to be located, the test has three sections; first section comprised of a seven time practice test which served the purpose of providing practice to the subjects and is not to be scored, second and third sections are comprised of nine difficult figures which are arranged in ascending order of difficulty within each section.The entire resting session is of 20 min.The total number of simple forms correctly traced in second and third sections combined is the individual’s scores since the items in practice set are not scored but merely scanned to ensure that the instructions have been understood properly by the subjects. Omitted items are scored as incorrect. Those students getting 13 or above marks are indicative of field independence while those students getting 8 or below marks are denoted as field dependent. Those students getting the median scores are not included in the groups. The value of reliability coefficient for the test is 0.82.

ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

Analysis is the process of resolving a problem in the logical sense. Analysis is a general process of breaking down a complex whole in to as many careful distinguished parts as opposed to synthesis so as derive concrete results.

The data in the current study was analysed under following headings:

  1. Difference in the attainment scores of higher order learning skill (metacognitive) taught through routine classroom teaching and constructivist technology approach.
  2. Difference in the attainment scores of higher order learning skill (cognitive style) taught through routine classroom teaching and constructivist technology approach.
  3. Relationship between technological input and attainment of gain score in relation to higher order learning skills.

Difference in the attainment scores of higher order learning skill (metacognitive) taught through routine classroom teaching and constructivist technology approach.

 

Table 1. Mean Difference of Metacognitive in case of P.S.E.B School Students

  Pre-test Post-test   t-value
Control Group (P.S.E.B School) Mean1 = 91, σ 1 = 8.10

 N1 = 25,  σM1 = 1.62

df =24

Mean2 = 91.08, σ 2 = 8.30

N2=  25, σM2 = 1.66

df =24

 

 

0.340

                r = 0.99 ,  σD = 0.235
Experimental group (P.S.E.B Schools) Mean1 = 87,  σ 1 = 7.84

 N1 = 25, σM1 = 1.568

df =24

Mean2 = 98, σ 2 = 6.92

N2=  25, σM1 = 1.384

df =24

 10.39
             r = 0.75,  σD = 1.058

 

Table 1 reveals that computed value of ‘t’ in case of the control group for P.S.E.B school is 0.340 which is quite small with respect to the critical values of ‘t’ for degree of freedom 24 at 5% and 1% level of significance which are 2.06 and 2.80 respectively .Hence, we conclude there is no significant difference between the pre-test and post- test scores of control group taught through routine classroom teaching .However in case of experimental group the computed value of ‘t’ i.e 10.39 exceeds the above mentioned critical values both at 5% and 1% level of significance indicative of the fact that  in case of the experimental group taught by constructivist technological approach there is significant difference between the two set of scores and population mean on the post-test is significantly higher than the population mean on pre- test .

 

Table 2. Mean Difference of Metacognitive in case of C.B.S.E School Students

  Pre-test Post-test   t-value
Control Group (C.B.S.E. School) Mean1 = 94 ,σ 1 = 7.63

 N1 = 25, σM1 = 1.53

df =24

Mean2 = 94.16, σ 2 = 7.71

N2=  25, σM2 = 1.54

df =24

 

 

0.736

               r = 0.99,  σD = 0.2173
Experimental group (C.B.S.E School) Mean1 = 93, σ 1 = 7.17

 N1 = 25, σM1 = 1.43

df =24

Mean2 = 98, σ 2 = 7.66

N2=  25, σM1 = 1.53

df =24

 6.83
                r = 0.88, σD = 0.732

 

Table 2 reveals that computed value of ‘t’ in case of the control group for C.B.S.E school is 0.340 which is quite small with respect to the critical values of ‘t’ for degree of freedom 24 at 5% and 1% level of significance which are 2.06 and 2.80 respectively. Hence, we conclude there is no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of control group taught through routine classroom teaching .However in case of experimental group the computed value of ‘t’ i.e 6.83 exceeds the above mentioned critical values both at 5% and 1% level of significance indicative of the fact that  in case of the experimental group taught by constructivist technological approach there is significant difference between the two set of scores and population mean on the post-test is significantly higher than the population mean on pre-test .

Conclusions

The computed value of ‘t’ for the experimental group taught by constructivist technological approach is quite higher than the critical ‘t’ values both at 1% and 5% level of significance indicative of the fact that there is significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores and population mean on the post-test is significantly higher than the population mean on pre-test. However, in case of the the control group taught by routine classroom teaching the calculated ‘t’ value is quite lower than the critical ‘t’ values both at 1% and 5% level of significance indicative of the fact that there is no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test metacognitive scores. Hence, we conclude that the adoption of constructivist technological approach in classroom leads to significant improvement in higher order learning skill i.e metacognition. This provides sufficient evidence for rejection of H1 i.e “There exists no difference in the attainment scores of higher order learning skill (metacognitive) taught through routine classroom teaching and constructivist technology approach.”

It may be noted from above that both in case of P.S.E.B. and C.B.S.E. school students the difference between the pre-test and post-test scores is significant and population                 mean on the post-test is significantly higher than the population mean on pre-test. Hence, we conclude that the adoption of constructivist technological approach in              classroom leads to significant improvement in higher order learning skill i.e metacognition in case of both P.S.E.B and C.B.S.E board students. So, the hypothesis H2 that there exists no difference in the attainment of higher order learning skill (metacognitive) among P.S.E.B and C.B.S.E. schools is rejected.

Image result for technology in classrooms

Difference in the attainment scores of higher order learning skill (cognitive style) taught through routine classroom teaching and constructivist technology approach.

Table 2. Cognitive Style in P.S.E.B School Students

Control Group Experiment Group
Si. No. Pre-test Post-test S.No Pre-test Post-test
1. 9 13 (F.I ) 1. 14 (F.I ) 16 (F.I )
2. 14 (F.I ) 15 (F.I ) 2. 12 12
3. 13 (F.I ) 14 (F.I ) 3. 10 14 (F.I )
4. 12 15 (F.I ) 4. 15 (F.I ) 16 (F.I )
5. 15(F.I ) 12 5. 17 (F.I ) 18 (F.I )
6. 16( F.I) 17 (F.I ) 6. 13 (F.I ) 18 (F.I )
7. 16 (F.I ) 14 (F.I ) 7. 9 15 (F.I )
8. 8 (F.D) 13 (F.I ) 8. 11 15 (F.I )
9. 10 9 9. 15 (F.I ) 17 (F.I )
10. 17 (F.I ) 17 (F.I ) 10. 15 (F.I ) 16 (F.I )
11. 13 (F.I ) 15 (F.I ) 11. 13 (F.I ) 15 (F.I )
12. 15 (F.I ) 15 (F.I ) 12. 11 14 (F.I )
13. 16 (F.I ) 17 (F.I ) 13. 15 (F.I ) 17 (F.I )
14. 18 (F.I ) 18 (F.I ) 14. 18 (F.I ) 18 (F.I )
15. 16 (F.I ) 17 (F.I ) 15. 17(F.I) 17 (F.I )
16. 12 14 (F.I ) 16. 6 (F.D) 14 (F.I)
17. 10 13 (F.I ) 17. 7 (F.D) 13 (F.I )
18. 15 (F.I ) 16 (F.I ) 18. 12 15 (F.I )
19. 11 13 (F.I ) 19. 6 (F.D) 16 (F.I)
20. 6(F.D) 12 20. 8 (F.D) 14 (F.I )
21. 8 (F.D) 10 21. 5 (F.D) 13 (F.I )
22. 7 (F.D) 9 22. 8 (F.D) 17 (F.I)
23. 6 (F.D) 9 23. 6 (F.D) 12
24. 12 13 (F.I ) 24. 10 13 (F.I )
25. 11 12 25. 13 (F.I ) 14 (F.I )
Total (F.I)=12

(F.D)=5

(F.I)=18

(F.D)=0

Total (F.I)=11

(F.D)=7

(F.I)=23

(F.D)=0

 

Table 4. Cognitive Style in C.B.S.E. School Students

Control Group

 

Experiment Group
Si. No. Pre-test Post-test Si. No. Pre-test Post-test
1. 7 (F.D) 12 1. 13 (F.I) 15 (F.I)
2. 10 13 (F.I) 2. 14 (F.I) 16 (F.I)
3. 8 (F.D) 13 (F.I) 3. 18 (F.I) 18 (F.I)
4. 10 14 (F.I) 4. 16 (F.I) 17 (F.I)
5. 13 (F.I) 13 (F.I) 5. 14 (F.I) 17 (F.I)
6. 12 12 6. 8 (F.D) 13 (F.I)
7. 15 (F.I) 16 (F.I) 7. 13 (F.I) 17 (F.I)
8. 13 (F.I) 14 (F.I) 8. 18 (F.I) 18 (F.I)
9. 7 (F.D) 8(F.D) 9. 7 (F.D) 13 (F.I)
10. 5 (F.D) 8 (F.D) 10. 15 (F.I) 16 (F.I)
11. 14 (F.I) 17 (F.I) 11. 10 13 (F.I)
12. 9 14 (F.I) 12. 12 14 (F.I)
13. 10 14 (F.I) 13. 11 16 (F.I)
14. 13 (F.I) 13 (F.I) 14. 8 (F.D) 17 (F.I)
15. 14 (F.I) 15 (F.I) 15. 9 13 (F.I)
16. 15 (F.I) 15 (F.I) 16. 15 (F.I) 17 (F.I)
17. 15 (F.I) 16 (F.I) 17. 6 (F.D) 14 (F.I)
18. 8 (F.D) 13 (F.I) 18. 17 (F.I) 17 (F.I)
19. 18 (F.I) 18 (F.I) 19. 10 12
20. 13 (F.I) 15 (F.I) 20. 14 (F.I) 18 (F.I)
21. 7 (F.D) 8(F.D) 21. 7 (F.D) 13 (F.I)
22. 13 (F.I) 14 (F.I) 22. 8 (F.D) 13 (F.I)
23. 5 (F.D) 8(F.D) 23. 18 (F.I) 18 (F.I)
24. 13 (F.I) 13 (F.I) 24. 12 15 (F.I)
25. 16 (F.I) 16 (F.I) 25. 5 (F.D) 12
Total (F.I)=13

(F.D)=7

(F.I)=19

(F.D)=1

Total (F.I)=12

(F.D)=7

(F.I)=23

(F.D)=0

 

(F.I) = Field independent   (F.D) = Field Dependent

Change in cognitive style for P.S.E.B. school students

  1. It may be observed from table 1.3 that in control group out of 25 there were 5 field dependent students in pre test from which only 1was converted to field independent in post test. With respect to pre test there was a gain of 5 students in field independent list in post test.
  2. It may be observed from table 1.3 that in experimental group out of 25 there were 7 fields dependent from which 6 were converted to field independent in post test. With respect to the pre test there was a gain of 13 students in field independent list in post test. There was improvement in the post test scores of students.

Change in cognitive style for C.B.S.E. school students

  1. It may be observed from table 1.4 that in control group out of 25 there were 7 field dependent students in pre test from which 2 were converted to field independent in post test. With respect to pre test there was a gain of 7 students in field independent list in post test.
  2. It may be observed from table 1.4 that in experimental group out of 25 there were 7 fields dependent from which 6 were converted to field independent in post test. With respect to the pre test there a gain of 12 students in field independent list in post test. There was improvement in the post test scores of students.

Conclusions

  1. It may be concluded from above that there is significant improvement in the cognitive style of experimental group than the control group students. So the hypothesis (H3) viz, “There exists no difference in the attainment scores of higher order learning skill (cognitive style) taught through routine classroom teaching and constructivist technology approach is rejected.
  2. It may be noted from above that there is no significant difference in the improved results of post test in both P.S.E.B. and C.B.S.E. school students. Hence the hypothesis H4 that “there exists no significant difference in the improvement of cognitive style of P.S.E.B and C.B.S.E school students, taught through routine classroom teaching and constructivist technological approach” is not rejected.
  3. Relationship between technological input and attainment of gain score in relation to higher order learning skills.

 

Table 5. Mean Difference of Metacognition between Post-test Scores of C.G and E.G both in case of P.S.E.B and C.B.S.E School Students

Category Post-test

(Control Group)

Post-test

(Experimental Group)

  t-value
P.S.E.B School Mean1 = 91.08, N1=  25, df = 48 Mean2 = 98, N2=  25, df = 48  

3.168

             Pooled S.D = 7.80 , σD = 2.184 
 C.B.S.E Schools Mean1 = 94.16, N2=  25, df = 48 Mean2 = 98, N2=  25, df = 48  2.084
                    Pooled S.D = 6.58 , σD = 1.84

 

Table 5 reveals that computed value of ‘t’  i.e significance of difference between post test scores of control and experimental group for P.S.E.B school is 3.168 which crosses the critical values of ‘t’ both at 5% and 1% level of significance which are 2.01 and 2.68 respectively. Similarly in case of the C.B.S.E school calculated value of ‘t’  i.e significance of difference between pos-test scores of control and experimental group for C.B.S.E school is 2.084 which crosses the critical values of ‘t’ at 5%  level significance which are 2.01  but is smaller than critical t-value at 1% level of significance i.e 2.68 .The result so obtained indicates that difference between post-test scores of control and experimental groups of C.B.S.E school is significant at 5% level of significance and insignificant at 1% level of significance. However, as the difference in both the cases is significant at 5% level of significance, this  provides enough evidence to support the fact that the technological input in the classroom has lead to significant increase or gain in the metacognitive scores.

Table 6. Post-test Scores of Cognitive Style for C.G and E.G both in case of P.S.E.B and C.B.S.E School Students

 

                        P.S.E..B School                      C.B.S.E  School
Si. No. Post-test (C.G) Post-test (E.G) Si. No. Post-test (C.G) Post-test (E.G)
1. 13 (F.I ) 16 (F.I ) 1. 12 15 (F.I)
2. 15 (F.I ) 12 2. 13 (F.I) 16 (F.I)
3. 14 (F.I ) 14 (F.I ) 3. 13 (F.I) 18 (F.I)
4. 15 (F.I ) 16 (F.I ) 4. 14 (F.I) 17 (F.I)
5. 12 18 (F.I ) 5. 13 (F.I) 17 (F.I)
6. 17 (F.I ) 18 (F.I ) 6. 12 13 (F.I)
7. 14 (F.I ) 15 (F.I ) 7. 16 (F.I) 17 (F.I)
8. 13 (F.I ) 15 (F.I ) 8. 14 (F.I) 18 (F.I)
9. 9 17 (F.I ) 9. 8(F.D) 13 (F.I)
10. 17 (F.I ) 16 (F.I ) 10. 8 (F.D) 16 (F.I)
11. 15 (F.I ) 15 (F.I ) 11. 17 (F.I) 13 (F.I)
12. 15 (F.I ) 14 (F.I ) 12. 14 (F.I) 14 (F.I)
13. 17 (F.I ) 17 (F.I ) 13. 14 (F.I) 16 (F.I)
14. 18 (F.I ) 18 (F.I ) 14. 13 (F.I) 17 (F.I)
15. 17 (F.I ) 17 (F.I ) 15. 15 (F.I) 13 (F.I)
16. 14 (F.I ) 14 (F.I) 16. 15 (F.I) 17 (F.I)
17. 13 (F.I ) 13 (F.I ) 17. 16 (F.I) 14 (F.I)
18. 16 (F.I ) 15 (F.I ) 18. 13 (F.I) 17 (F.I)
19. 13 (F.I ) 16 (F.I) 19. 18 (F.I) 12
20. 12 14 (F.I ) 20. 15 (F.I) 18 (F.I)
21. 10 13 (F.I ) 21. 8(F.D) 13 (F.I)
22. 9 17 (F.I) 22. 14 (F.I) 13 (F.I)
23. 9 12 23. 8(F.D) 18 (F.I)
24. 13 (F.I ) 13 (F.I ) 24. 13 (F.I) 15 (F.I)
25. 12 14 (F.I ) 25. 16 (F.I) 12
Total (F.I)=18

(F.D)=0

(F.I)=23

(F.D)=0

Total (F.I)=19

(F.D)=1

(F.I)=23

(F.D)=0

 

Table 6 reveals the post test scores for cognitive style both for control and experimental groups of C.B.S.E and P.S.E.B schools. It is observed from the tabulated score that in case of P.S.E.B school total number of field independent students for the control group were 18 which showed considerable improvement for experimental group being 23. Similarly, in case of C.B.S.E school total number of field independent students for the control group were 19 which showed considerable improved in the case of experimental group being 23.

Conclusion

In both the schools there is significant increase in the post-test scores of experimental group taught by constructivist technological approach , both for metacognitive and cognitive style with respect to pos-test scores of the control group taught by routine classroom teaching. This provides enough evidence to support the fact that the technological input in the classroom has lead to significant increase or gain in the both metacognitive and cognitive style scores. Hence, the H5 viz: “There is no relationship between technological input and attainment of gain score in relation to higher order learning skills.” is rejected.

DISCUSSION

Hypothesis 1

Statistics of data show that the adoption of constructivist technological approach in classroom leads to significant improvement in higher order learning skill i.e metacognitive. Meaningful learning occurs when learners are actively involved in a process of meaning-making and knowledge construction, rather than passively receiving and memorizing information as done in the traditional teaching. Learners taught by constructivist technological approach are self-empowered to define problems, research a wide variety of material and media, conceptualize, reason and clearly communicate their solutions using a wide range of media(Richardson, 1997) and (Schunk, 2004). This helps in active monitoring and consequent regulation and orchestration of various processes in relation to cognitive object or data furthering the development of metacognitive. The results obtained are in tune with the findings of Ayas, Cemalettin.(2006) who asserts that powerful teaching learning that integrates technology aligned with constructivist pedagogy has the potential to move social studies education beyond meaningless facts, inadequate connections, superficial coverage of contents and passive knowledge construction.  Studies carried out in university of London by Jonassen (2000) also suggests that Middle school students can acquire the necessary skills to learn science by using computer simulations. The results of current investigation were in close agreement with the similar study done by   Philip (2000) which suggests that the students were encouraged to think in greater depth about the materials and to argue their convictions in an improved manner by computer simulation.

Hypothesis 2

                Data reveals that that the adoption of constructivist technological approach in classroom leads to significant improvement in higher order learning skill i.e metacognitive in case of both P.S.E.B and C.B.S.E board students. Use of constructivist technological approach, through active participation of students in classroom discussion and following multi-sensory approach to learning equally empowers the learners both from P.S.E.B and C.B.S.E boards to become the meaning-makers, and   understand new ideas which further help them to know and regulate their cognitive processes developing their metacognitive.

Hypothesis 3

Statistics of data show that there is significant improvement in the cognitive style of experimental group with respect to the the control group students. With respect to the traditional teaching the adoption of constructivist technological approach in classroom that appeals to the multiple senses of the learner and generates healthy learning environment in the classroom enables learners to actively participate in classroom discussions, construct their own knowledge and arrive at solutions of various problems (Fosnot, 1996) and (Hendry et al.,1999). This in turn help in development of Insight, Problem solving and Critical thinking which to large extent contribute to the cognitive-style of the learner. These results so obtained are in tune with the findings of Philip (2000) who asserts that the constructivist approach to learning assumes that learning is best done by learner constructing their own understanding, developing higher order learning skills. Jonassen (2003) also arrived at similar results holding the view point that the problem solving, discovery learning, deeper insight and inductive learning are seen to constitute a general framework for the description of learning process that are involved in exploratory environments (constructivist approach).The results of present study are also in tune with the view point of Honey et. al.,(2003) who in their similar study arrived at conclusion that constructivist simulations on experimental group revealed that the experimental group demonstrated more sophisticated reasoning in other words  higher order thinking skills.

Hypothesis 4

                Data reveals that that the adoption of constructivist technological approach in classroom leads to significant improvement in higher order learning skill i.e cognitive style in case of both P.S.E.B and C.B.S.E board students. Adoption of constructivist technological approach in teaching rather than traditional one calls for active participation of students both from P.S.E.B and C.B.S.E schools in classroom discussions, give them opportunity to generate new ideas and come forward with innovative solutions to the novel problems that arise when the teaching –learning process continues. Moreover the curriculum requirement for both the boards is more or less the same hence the learners of class ninth of both the schools though of different boards were taught the similar content material by employing the constructivist technological approach to teaching which equally empowered them to develop insight, problem solving and critical thinking improving their cognitive or thinking style.

Hypothesis 5

Statistics of data provides enough evidence to support the fact that the technological input in the classroom has lead to significant increase or gain in the both metacognitive and cognitive style scores. With respect to the monotonous and teacher dominated environment that characterizes traditional teaching the child-centred environment generated by adopting the technological constructivist classroom act as the motivational source for the learners and create in them desire and interest to learn. The delivery of the subject material through Power point presentations loaded with variety of colourful illustrations, animations and sound clips appeals to the multiple senses of the students and enables them to correlate knowledge gained in four walls of classroom with real world outside. This helps in development of various mental faculties like memory, attention, imagination, reasoning and judgement which may further account for improvement in metacognitive and cognitive-style.

EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY

The results and findings of the study suggest that Constructivist technological approach has proved to increase the metacognitive and         cognitive style  of the students. These are some of higher order learning skills  which are required by the learners to make them self-empowered to define problems, research a wide variety of material and media, conceptualize, reason and clearly communicate their solutions using a wide range of media. Inculcation of constructivist technological approach will make our future generations able to “use their knowledge and skills- by thinking crtically, applying knowledge to the new situations, analyzing information, comprehending new ideas, communicating, collaborating, solving problems, making decisions”. The curriculum may be designed following the constructivist technology approach and after testing its initial impact, it may be made a part of present day curriculum.

Teachers should be encouraged to come out of their cacoons and orientate their                 teaching on the constructivist strategies. They should be receptive to the new techniques and innovative ideas in the field of teaching-learning to enrich their teaching strategies. New programmes should be organised for the teachers to give them training for the use of constructivist technology. Old myths of teachers regarding low level of attainment of P.S.E.B than C.B.S.E. students should be clarified. The low level of achievement of the students is not due to incapability of         student but due to the traditional styles of teaching of  the teachers.

Heads of the institutions should show an attitude of  cooperation to an innovative teacher who wishes to use technology enriched environment that appeals to multisensory channels of pupil to provide them wide variety of experiences and             knowledge. They should not only be concerned with the academic results of their  students that can earn laurels to the institution but should make their students creative, original thinkers and problem solvers.

Parents of the children need to be technology-minded and need to understand the relevance of technology enriched environment in education of their child. They shouldmake available the necessary electronic gadget including computers and        internet facility at the disposal of their child, so that he no more gets yesterdays education in the modern world of today. However, the parents of the children need to maintain the check that the technology is relevantly used by the children for the purpose of education and not for unnecessary entertainment.

The societal educational resources need to be reconstituted on the technological lines. In the community libraries, necessary provisions of computers along with the internet facilities need to be made so that learners from every strata of society are not devoid of fruits of quality knowledge and experiences that can self empower them to be creative, original thinkers and problem solvers.

SUGGESTIONS FOR THE FURTHER STUDY

The present study was restricted to 100 students only of Ferozepur city. In further studies, a large sample from the large area encompassing entire state and even entire nation can taken to get more valid and reliable results.It was also restricted to the students of  class 9th only. It is suggested that similar study can be conducted on students from primary to senior-  secondary classes. In the present study only two higher order learning skills (metacognition and cognitive  style) were taken in consideration. Same study can be conducted taking more of the higher order skills (comprehension, critical thinking, problem solving, insight etc)  under investigation.

REFERENCES

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Jonassen, D. H. (2000). Computers as mindtools for schools: Engaging critical thinking (2 Ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill/Prentice-Hall.

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2 thoughts on “TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOM

  1. abdullah aman says:

    Sir plz add more topics related to psychology and information technology

    1. nascheloor says:

      Surely, more topics will be added..
      you may also share contents

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