Speculative philosophy

Speculative Philosophy is the endeavor to frame a coherent, logical, necessary system of general ideas in terms of which every element of our experience can be interpreted. Thus speculative philosophy can be defined as  “philos­ophy which constructs a synthesis of knowledge from many fields (sciences, arts, religion, ethics, social sciences) and theorizes (reflects) about such things as its significance to humankind, and about what it indicates about reality as a whole.”

Normative philosophy

Normative philosophy assumes that the subject matter of its study is not realised, that there is a difference between what it ought to be and what it is. It tries to distinguish, “what is” from “what ought to be”. To establish norms, philosophy appeals to the essential characteristic or essence that creates something so. It sets out standards for correct ways of organizing knowledge. For instance, when philosophers ask “what is kindness?” they seek to find an ideal concept as it should be and then in terms of that ideal concept they judge the way things really are. In this way they can tell what counts as being kind or not.

Analytic philosophy

Analytic philosophy attempts to clarify, by analysis, the meaning of statements and theories. Analytic philosophers conduct conceptual investigations that commonly, though not always, include studies of the language in which the concepts in question are, or can be, stated. For example, the definition of a gravitational law can be understood by uncovering the underlying logical structures (about the masses and distance) of the sentences used to obtain it.

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